Many people within the Church today give credence and support to certain private apparitions. St. Bernadette of Lourdes and Sr. Lucia of Fatima, just to name two, received private apparitions of Our Lady, which were later examined and approved by the Church. However, while some private apparitions are authentic, others have been rejected or condemned because their so-called “messages” contradicted formal Church teaching and public revelation found in Scripture and Tradition.Robert Haddad provides valuable insight on how to appropriately discern whether an apparition is from God, man, or the devil. There are numerous criteria to help the faithful in such situations, relating both to the “messages” themselves and the personal character of the alleged seers. Overall, although these tools are helpful, the faithful should always submit to the final arbitration of the Church, which alone can decide such matters with finality and authority.